Sri Lanka Military
The preliminary requirement was to boost an artillery regiment, an engineer squadron, an infantry battalion, a medical unit, and a service corps firm. For much of the Nineteen Fifties the army was preoccupied with the task of constructing itself and coaching existing and new private. To this goal the British Army Training Team advisory group carried out training for ex-members of the CDF throughout the Ceylon Army, field rank officers were sent to the British Army Staff College, Camberley and some connected to units of the British Army of the Rhine to gain area experience.
Throughout the following years, more Sinhalese and Malays had been recruited to those regiments, and in 1814 the 4th Regiment was raised, which was composed completely of African troops. Eventually, the Kandyan Kingdom was ceded to the British in 1815, and with that they gained control over the whole island. During the first half-century of occupation, the British faced numerous uprisings, and had been compelled to maintain a sizable military so as to guarantee their control over the island. After the Matale Rebellion led by Puran Appu in 1848, in which a number of Sinhalese recruits defected to the aspect of the rebels, the recruitment of Sinhalese to the British forces was briefly halted.
However, with the rise of numerous casualties because of the operations, the Sri Lanka Army proceeded to make the most of the services of battle casualties with the view of obtaining a productive service from these people. In 1971, the Army discovered itself dealing with a full blown insurgency, when the JVP Insurrection broke out in April 1971. Having being caught unexpectedly, as a result of failure to understand the magnitude of the insurgency from intelligence reports. Although utterly unwell-ready to cope with an insurgency, lacking weapons, ammunition, tools and coaching; the army responded quickly and efficiently defeated the insurgency by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna by mid 1971. During the Second World War, Britain assumed direct control over the Armed Forces of Ceylon. In 1910 the name of the military was formally modified to the Ceylon Defence Force .
Prince Vijaya and his followers occupied the lands of the native Vedda people. Repeated incursions by South Indians, significantly the Cholas, into Sri Lankan territory occurred throughout the next few centuries and led to the engagement of the rival forces in battle. In one famous encounter, Sinhalese King Dutugamunu ( BC) raised an army of 11 thousand in his battle against the Chola invader Elara, whom he ultimately defeated.
Senevitathna and the primary batch of feminine cadets to be skilled in Sri Lanka was commissioned from the Sri Lanka Military Academy on 18 August 1984. On 16 October 1980, ten women were recruited for N.C.O. coaching and got the basic Army training on the Army Training Centre, Diyatalawa. The three officers and ten N.C.O.s participated at the Independence Day celebrations held on the Galle Face Green for the primary time in 1981 and Women’s Corps has been part of the nation’s Independence celebrations ever since.
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The warfare with the LTTE was halted a number of occasions for peace negotiations, the final of which following the signing of a ceasefire agreement in 2002 with the assistance of international mediation. However, renewed violence broke out in December 2005 and following the collapse of peace talks, the Army has been involved within the heavy preventing that has resumed in the north and east of the nation. In May 1972, when Ceylon was proclaimed a republic and changed its name from the Dominion of Ceylon to the Republic of Sri Lanka, all Army items have been renamed accordingly. During the First World War, many volunteers from the Defence Force travelled to Great Britain and joined the British Army, and lots of of them had been killed in action. One of them talked about by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was Private Jacotine of the CLI, who was the final man left alive in his unit on the Battle of Lys, and who continued to struggle for 20 minutes before he was killed. At the start of the sixteenth century, trendy Europe first got here involved with Sri Lanka.
The warfare escalated to the purpose where India intervened as a peacekeeping drive. This was later seen as a tactical error, as the Indian Peace Keeping Force united nationalist elements such because the JVP to politically support the LTTE in their name to evict the IPKF. This led to a second insurgency by the JVP, forcing the army to deploy its forces in the south of the island and to battle on two fronts between 1987 and 1989. The Nineteen Eighties saw a massive expiation of the army from 15,000 personal to over 30,000 and extra. New weapons and gear had been introduced because the war shifted from counter-insurgency to traditional warfare techniques, with multi battalion, brigade and division scale operations. New regiments have been fashioned which included the Commando Regiment, Special Forces Regiment, Mechanized Infantry Regiment, Gajaba Regiment, Vijayabahu Infantry Regiment, Military Intelligence Corps, Sri Lanka Army Women’s Corps, Sri Lanka Rifle Corps and the Sri Lanka National Guard.
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The functionality of the Sri Lanka Artillery was enhanced with the introduction of Ordnance QF 25 pounders. Chinese-made 122 mm, one hundred thirty mm and 152 mm howitzers have been introduced to the Sri Lankan Army in 1995 and 1998 whilst 122 mm Multi Barrel Rocket Launchers , had been first utilized in 2000 by the Sri Lanka Army. New sources of weaponry in the mid-to-late Seventies included the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and China – nations with which the leftist Bandaranaike government had close ties. The regimental centre of the corps was established on 17 November 1997 at Borella.
In addition to the basic infantry forces, a commando regiment was also established in 1986. The Army Headquarters, Ceylon was established in Colombo, with a General Staff Branch, an Adjutant General Branch, a Quartermaster General Branch and a Pay and Records Branch.
The United Kingdom performed a serious role in the early years following independence and have continued to be an essential supply of military expertise to the Sri Lankan navy. Other sources embody India, Pakistan, the United States, Australia and Malaysia. Additionally, in an settlement reached in 1984, Israeli safety personnel educated military officers in counterinsurgency methods. With the rapid expansion of the army, in recent times it has expanded its coaching facilities domestically. Like the Indian Army, the Sri Lanka Army has largely retained the British-style regimental system that it inherited upon independence. The individual regiments function independently and recruit their own members. The infantry battalion, the fundamental unit of organization in area operations, includes five corporations of 4 platoons every.
Newly recruited officer cadets were sent for coaching at Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, stating with 10 officer cadets in 1950, which continued till the 1968 and both officers and other ranks had been despatched to specialist training programs in Britain, India, Pakistan and Malaya. There have been no formations and all items have been structured to immediately operate under the Army Headquarters. However momentary field headquarters had been to be formed at the time requirement arose.
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Due to the Sri Lankan Civil War the army has been on a constant mobilized state for the reason that 1980s. The majority of the army has been deployed within the North and Eastern provinces of the nation, which includes 14 Divisions coming under six operational headquarters and a pair of impartial Divisions and several independent Brigades.
All these establishments come underneath the management of the Directorate of Training, Army Headquarters. Specialist and additional coaching is given by specialist coaching full tutorial and guide email extractor and search engine scraper by creative bear tech schools, regimental coaching centres and individual subject items.
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Basic officer coaching is carried out on the Sri Lanka Military Academy located in Diyatalawa, in the Badulla District. The officer cadets graduating from the academy are commissioned as officers within the common and volunteer forces. The course for officer cadets runs for ninety weeks and consists of coaching in tactics and administration which helps prepare the cadets to take up the positions of platoon commanders. The course consisted of military and academic topics and also skilled the cadets bodily. The course helps to promote leadership qualities and the understanding of each one’s role as an officer and a servant of the state.
While the Logistics Staff Course is performed at the Army School of Logistics which was established in 2011. In addition KDU conducts Masters Of Science diploma for the officers of military. The army steady to send its senior officers for abroad training, specially for defense college. For occasion a divisional headquarters is divided into a GS department as an AQ department, every headed by a Colonel and is liable for operations & coaching and administration & logistics respectively.
The SLEME is also producing automobiles for transport, the UniCOLT collection vans, and landmine-resistant autos, the UniAIMOVs and the UniAVALONs. In 2020, the Army shipped several modernized Unibuffels to the Sri Lankan forces who are serving in a peacekeeping mission in Mali. Though the weapons had been out of date at the time of purchase, security forces discovered them to be successful in combat. Land mines proved to be the most lethal threat to personnel, as a variety of mines were deployed towards unprotected vehicles and buses by the LTTE in the northern and jap Provinces.
Another sturdy ruler within the Transitional interval of Sri Lanka was Parakramabahu VI, who defeated Indian invaders, united the island and dominated it from capital Kotte. Militias were raised as the necessity arose, and the soldiers returned to their pursuits, mainly for farming, after their spell of army responsibility.
Similarly, a Brigade Major and Major AQ is answerable for operations and administration in a brigade. Due to an absence of any main external threats, the growth of the army was sluggish, and the primary duties of the military rapidly moved in the direction of internal security by the mid-1950s, the same time as the primary Ceylonese Army Commander Major General Anton Muttukumaru took command of the military. The first inside safety operation of the Ceylon Army began in 1952, code named Operation Monty to counter the influx of unlawful South Indian immigrants brought in by smugglers on the north-western coast, in help best yellow pages scraper software yellow pages extractor grabber of Royal Ceylon Navy coastal patrols and police operations. This was expanded and renamed as Task Force Anti Illicit Immigration in 1963 and continued up to 1981 when it was disbanded. The Army was mobilised to help the police to revive peace beneath provincial emergency regulations during the 1953 hartal, the 1956 Gal Oya Valley riots and in 1958 it was deployed for the first time under emergency rules throughout the island during the 1958 Riots. In 1803 the third Ceylon Regiment was created with Moluccans and recruits from Penang. All these regiments fought alongside British troops in the Kandyan Wars which began in 1803.
Dutugemunu’s organisational skills, bravery and chivalry are famous and his battles have gone down in historical past as outstanding offensive operations. The professional full tutorial and guide email extractor and search engine scraper by creative bear tech head of the Sri Lanka Army is the Commander of the Army, presently General Shavendra Silva.
However operations of the Sri Lanka Army are coordinated by the Joint Operations Command, with different two armed forces. In latest years, Sri Lanka has turn out to be increasingly reliant on China for weapons. This is due to most European nations and the United States Governments passing laws about the selling of weaponry to nations which are suffering from inner conflict. However the United States has expressed its intent to maintain military training assistance. Recently the Sri Lankan Army started to provide regionally weapons corresponding to a new multiple rocket launcher, with 10 barrels and a firing range of 20 km.
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Field Marshal Fonseka is well known for main the 30-year-old war to an finish. Colonel Tuan Nizam Muthaliff† – Former commanding officer 1st Battalion Military Intelligence Corps. South Sudan – Sri Lanka Army’s entry into South Sudan in 2014 as the most recent member in the UN peace maintaining family, marks a milestone within the Army history. Sri Lanka became the primary nation to deploy a surge contingent in South Sudan.Army maintains a SRIMED Level 2 Hospital, manned completely by Sri Lanka’s Sri Lanka Army Medical Corps personnel. Lebanon – a mechanized infantry firm with combat assist personal in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon since November 2010. Haiti – an infantry battalion with support private totaling around 1000 personal in Haiti as a part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti from 2004 to 2015. As of present, the bulk of the Sri Lankan Army is deployed for home defensive and fight operations, whereas a large foreign deployment is maintained.
The army can also be based in other parts of the island for internal safety including a Division for the defence of the capital. Vijayabahu I (1055–1110) was one other warrior king who dislodged Indian invaders and united the country. Parakramabahu the Great (1153–86) was an outstanding monarch of the Polonnaruwa interval, and his accomplishments as a army leader and a great administrator are noteworthy.
Today, Alibaba Group Holding Limited is among the largest firms in China that gives client-to-consumer, enterprise-to-consumer and business-to-enterprise gross sales and various different companies through e-commerce web in addition to offline portals. The main revenue incomes companies embrace digital cost companies, marketplace, and data-centric cloud computing. Traditionally the group functions beneath the leadership of the wife of the serving Commander of the Army, and the members are the spouses of Army Officers in addition to Lady Officers. The organization extends to 22 Regimental branches functioning underneath the patronage of the wives of the respective Regimental Commanders. To meet the menace posed by predominantly the LTTE, Army bought fashionable army hardware including 50-caliber heavy machine weapons, rocket-propelled grenade launchers, Night Vision Devices, 106 mm recoilless rifles, 60 mm and eighty one mm mortars, 40 mm grenade launchers and a few sniper rifles. Refurbished armored personnel carriers have been added to the ‘A’ car fleet of the first Reconnaissance Regiment, Sri Lanka Armoured Corps. These APCs enabled the Armoured Corps to have their own assault troops to supply close contact protection to their Alvis Saladin and Ferret Scout Cars which were vulnerable to anti-tank weapons.
These land mines weighed approximately 50 – 100 kg, towards which no armoured automobile that the SLA possessed was in a position to stand up to the blast impact. Consequently, Armscor Buffels – South African armoured personnel carriers constructed on a Unimog chassis – were imported in amount. By 1987 Sri Lanka’s indigenous Unicorn APC had been engineered from the Buffel, adopted by the improved Unibuffel class. Both the Unicorn and the Unibuffel are assembled by the Sri Lanka Electrical & Mechanical Engineers . The professional head of the army is the Commander of the Army, at present General Shavendra Silva. He is assisted by the Chief of Staff of the Sri Lanka Army and a Deputy Chief of Staff. The Commandant of the Volunteer Force is head of the Army Volunteer Force and is responsible for the administration and recruitment of all reserve units and private.
For that let us first perceive how does Alibaba work and what all businesses does it own. Sri Lanka Army Seva Vanitha Unit conducts varied welfare tasks similar ecosia search engine scraper and email extractor to Viru Kekulu pre-colleges, day care centres, welfare outlets, bakeries and salons, with the committed contribution of the devoted membership.
Male Major General W.A.A. de Silva RSP USP was the primary Colonel Commandant of the Regiment and feminine Lieutenant Colonel M.H.P.S. Perera, USP was the first Centre Commandant. Major General H.I.G. Wijerathna, USP was the first female colonel commandant of this regiment who served from 2008 to 2010 and Brigadier D.T.N. Munasinghe was the second feminine to be appointed because the colonel commandant in 2016. how to scrape data from a website with website scraper and e mail extractor of Rehabilitation was established with the intention and focus in direction of the rehabilitation of Officers and Other Ranks Wounded in Action.
In 1948 Sri Lanka gained independence from Britain, changing into a Dominion inside the Commonwealth and a 12 months earlier Ceylon entered into the bi-lateral Anglo-Ceylonese Defence Agreement of 1947. Therefore, October 10, 1949 is considered the day the Ceylon Army was raised, and as such October 10 is widely known annually as Army Day. Brigadier James Sinclair, Earl of Caithness was appointed as Commandant of the Ceylon Army. The Defence Agreement of 1947 supplied the reassurance that British would come to assistance from Ceylon in the event it was attacked by a foreign energy and offered British army advisers to build up the country’s navy. In November, a Ceylon Army Guard takes over duties at Echelon Barracks from the Guard of the British Army. The Portuguese are credited with the introduction of European-fashion fortresses to Sri Lanka throughout this period.
Aggressive recruitment campaigns following the 1983 riots raised this quantity to sixteen,000 by early 1985. By 1990 the army had expanded to over 90,000 personnel and by 2007, it had expanded to over 120,000. The Sri Lankan Army has additionally offered special training to the United States Army on their request in addition to many different nations in military schooling concerning civilian rescue, jungle fight, and guerilla warfare etc. General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University shaped in 1981 and located in Ratmalana, fourteen kilometers south of Colombo, is Sri Lanka’s solely university specializing in defence research. Each yr, roughly fifty cadets from all three services are admitted to the university (aged 18–22) to participate in a 3-year programme of educational work and primary training. Parts of Sri Lanka got here under the control of three colonial European powers, namely the Portuguese in the 16th century, the Dutch within the seventeenth century and the British in the 18th century. Yet, till the complete island was ceded to the British in 1815, regional kingdoms maintained most of their independent protection forces and were capable of efficiently repulse repeated thrusts by the European armies.
Each department is headed by an officer in the rank of Major General who’s directly accountable to the Commander of the Army for the sleek functioning of the Branch. Under every Branch, there are several Directorates, each headed by a Brigadier. Since 1980 the army has undertaken many operations against the LTTE rebels. The major operations carried out by the military eventually led to the recapture of Jaffna and other rebel strongholds. On 19 May 2009 Sri Lankan military declare the victory of struggle as they discovered the useless physique of LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran. This marked the end of the warfare, with the LTTE ceasing to exist in Sri Lanka on account of prolonged navy offensives carried out by Sri Lanka military. The Sri Lankan Armed Forces, including the military, have been accused of committing war crimes in the course of the war, particularly during the last phases.
Homeowners Insurance Industry Database with Email List noticed energetic service when a contingent of the Ceylon Mounted Infantry in 1900, and a contingent of the Ceylon Planters Rifle Corps in 1902, took part within the Second Boer War in South Africa. Their companies were recognised by the presentation in 1902 of a colour to the CMI, and a presentation in 1904 of a banner to the CPRC. In 1922, the CDF was honoured by the presentation of the King’s and Regimental colours to the Ceylon Light Infantry . The British Empire then ousted the Dutch from the coastal areas of the country, and sought to overcome the impartial Kandyan Kingdom. In the face of repeated British assaults, the Kandyans have been compelled into a level of guerilla warfare and fared well towards their superior British adversaries. As of April 2016, It is the world’s largest retailer surpassing Walmart, with operations in over 200 international locations.
His reign included a navy expedition to Burma in retaliation for indignities inflicted on his envoys and Burmese interference within the elephant commerce. It can be reported that Parakramabahu’s fame was such that his help was sought by South Indian rulers who were concerned in internecine struggles.
The Army Headquarters is divided into a variety of branches, namely the General Staff branch answerable for coordination of operations and training and the Adjutant General’s branch liable for personal administration, welfare, medical services, and rehabilitation. The Quarter Master General’s department is responsible for feeding, transport, movement, and construction and maintenance. The Master General of Ordnance’s department is responsible for procurement and maintenance of autos and special tools. The Military Secretary’s Branch is responsible for dealing with all matters pertaining to officers such as promotions, postings and discipline.
Initially the British stationed their forces, which included naval vessels, artillery troops and infantry, to defend the island nation from other international powers, utilizing the pure harbor of Trincomalee as their headquarters in Sri Lanka. In 1796, the Swiss and Malay mercenaries who had been beforehand in the service of the Dutch had been transferred to the British East India Company. While the Swiss Regiment de Meuron left in 1806 and was ultimately disbanded in Canada in 1822, the Malays, who initially formed a Malay Corps, had been converted into the first Ceylon Regiment in 1802 and placed beneath a British commanding officer. In the same 12 months, the British grew to become the primary foreign power to boost a Sinhalese unit, which was named the 2nd Ceylon Regiment, also referred to as the Sepoy Corps. The Army Training Command with its headquarters at Diyatalawa formulates all training doctrine of the army and all its coaching centers. ARTRAC directs all army training establishments, regimental training institutions and battalion training faculties.
By the late Nineteen Seventies the military was confronted with a brand new conflict, this time with Tamil militant teams in the north of the island. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam emerged as the distinguished of those Tamil militant teams.
Construction of homes, giving away of instructional scholarships and aiding in occasions of natural disasters, are done at each organizational and Regimental levels. The volunteer service prolonged by the spouses of the Army Officers whilst multitasking at their roles as wives, mothers and professionals, is an immense power to Sri Lanka Army. In the 12 months 2015, Sri Lanka Army received is 1st Rank of Field Marshal, when President Maithripala Sirisena promoted General Sarath Fonseka to the post.
- This was later seen as a tactical error, because the Indian Peace Keeping Force united nationalist components such because the JVP to politically assist the LTTE in their name to evict the IPKF.
- This led to a second insurgency by the JVP, forcing the military to deploy its forces in the south of the island and to fight on two fronts between 1987 and 1989.
- The struggle escalated to the purpose the place India intervened as a peacekeeping force.
- The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam emerged as the distinguished of these Tamil militant groups.
- The 1980s saw an enormous expiation of the military from 15,000 personal to over 30,000 and extra.
- By the late Nineteen Seventies the military was confronted with a new conflict, this time with Tamil militant groups in the north of the island.
To counter these frequent strikes several models have been shaped, who had been employed in growth work when there have been no strikes. New regiments have been fashioned, which included the Ceylon Armoured Corps, Ceylon Sinha Regiment and the Ceylon Pioneer Corps. At the top of World War II, CDF which had increased in dimension during the war started demobilisation.
The Dutch Forts in Jaffna, Galle, Matara, Batticaloa and Trincomalee were sturdily built and are considered a tribute to their navy engineering expertise. Also, just like the Portuguese, the Dutch focussed on maritime energy and although that they had the potential to develop and use local forces, they chose to isolate themselves from the native inhabitants. The primary purpose of raising Women’s Corps was to provide telephone operators, laptop operators, nurses and clerks, to launch the male counterparts to the battle field.
The Army Headquarters, housed within the Defence Headquarters Complex in Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte is the principle administrative and the operational headquarters of the Sri Lanka Army. By 1658 they had fully ousted the Portuguese from the coastal areas of the island. Much just like the Portuguese, they didn’t make use of locals in their army and most popular to reside in isolation, pursuing their interests in trade and commerce. Like the Portuguese, they defended their forts with their very own forces, however not like the Portuguese, Dutch forces employed Swiss and Malay mercenaries.
Although some locals already possessed army coaching and fighting expertise, there isn’t any proof that the Portuguese employed native inhabitants into their very own forces. Thus the Portuguese had been pressured to limit their presence within the island as a result of their small numbers and their efforts had been extra targeted toward projecting maritime power. The first military engagements in Sri Lankan history have been marked by the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a prince from the Bengal area who landed along with his followers on the seashores of northwestern Sri Lanka around 543 BC.
Due to the shortage of officers throughout the decrease ranges, the training process was sped up in the Eighties by creating a short commission course. The cadets were given a coaching of fifty-six weeks and devoted themselves to proceed their careers within the army with the ten years of service for normal army officers and five years of service for volunteer officers. In 1962 several senior officers tried a military coup, which was stopped hours before it was launched. Thereafter the government mistrusted the army and decreased the dimensions and progress of the army, particularly the volunteer drive, disbanding a number of models and forming the Gemunu Watch.
Six extra battalions had been created in the 1990s and 2000s and until now the corps has seven battalions in whole. Making a corps for women was dreamed by former Commander of the Army General Denis Perera who became commander in October 1977. Gen. Perera sought help from the WRAC of British Army and in 1978 three females have been despatched to Britain for officer coaching. They returned to Sri Lanka in August 1979 after completion of eight months of coaching. In late 1987, the army had a complete estimated strength of up to 40,000 troops, about evenly divided between regular army personnel and reservists on lively duty. The roughly 20,000 common military troops represented a major increase over the 1983 energy of only 12,000.
However the British, not like their counterparts, weren’t primarily restricted to maritime energy, and thus had the potential to deliver the whole island underneath their control and to combine locals into the British defense forces. Taobao, the biggest web site of Alibaba, is so huge and well-liked that it compelled the market chief of the online marketplaces – eBay to close its enterprise in China in 2006. Taobao lists lots of of hundreds of thousands of services from tens of millions of sellers .
Since the Sri Lankan armed forces are all volunteer services, all personal within the Sri Lanka Army have volunteered as common personnel or reservists. This shouldn’t be confused with the normal time period volunteers used for reservists or reservist units. Recruitment of the non-public are carried island broad with a restrictions in the northern and jap provinces in the course of the civil struggle in these areas. The Rifle Corps is the only territorial unit that carries out recruitment from a particular space. In June 2009, Sri Lanka announced plans to create a “Tamil regiment” to promote integration in the army. At its formation the armed forces of Sri Lanka had limited indigenous coaching facilities, particularly in technical and advanced roles, they have depended significantly on navy training provided by overseas nations.
The Sri Lanka Army has taken part in two peacekeeping missions with United Nations over the course of its historical past. Most just lately, following the signing of a ceasefire agreement was signed between the federal government and the LTTE in 2002, Sri Lankan forces were invited by the United Nations to be part of the UN peacekeeping force in Haiti. In the process of the peacekeeping operations, two soldiers have been killed in a raid in Petit-Goave. After over 6 months of service, the first contingent of the peacekeeping drive returned to Sri Lanka on May 17, 2005. In December 2007, 7th rotation of the Sri Lankan contingent had been deployed with a pressure of 991 officers and other ranks, lots of these deployed have been awarded the United Nations Medal for his or her services. In January 2019, a Sri Lankan military officer and trooper on peace maintaining responsibility in Mali have been killed and three more wounded when their convoy got here beneath an IED attack.
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